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Academic Research: A Guide for International Students: Citations


What is a Citation?
A citation is...
When you write your research report, it is important that you say where your information came from.
This is done within the text of your paper (citations) and also at the end of your paper in a reference section (bibliography).

Citation Software
RefWorks can help manage your citations online for you. As a DU student, you can create a free account.  
Zotero is a free online tool to help you collect, organize, cite and share your resources.

What is a Bibliography?
A bibliography a list of information resources used to write a research paper. The bibliography is in the References section at the end of your paper.

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Style Manuals

Style Manuals

Style Guides

What is a Style Guide?
A style guide is a set of standards for writing papers and using citations and references.  
Ask your professor which style to use.  
DU uses these major style guides:  

  • Chicago Manual of Style
  • MLA Handbook
  • American Psychological Association (APA)
  • Turabian


The Writing Center
The Writing Center has quick guides for creating citations in MLA, APA, and The Chicago Manual of Style. The Writing Center will also be happy to meet with you and help you learn to use any of the style manuals commonly in use at DU.

University Libraries' Style Manuals and Citations Guide
This guide has information about each of the four style guides.

Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL): Writing in North American Higher Education: A Primer for International Students
This handout is an introduction to the basics of academic writing for non-native speakers of English, who are also new to American colleges and universities.

Harvard’s APA Exposed Slides:

Everything You’ve Always Wanted to Know about APA Format but Were Afraid to Ask
This tutorial goes over the basics of how to use the APA format and how to cite references. There are four modules. 

APA Exposed Video


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Research Center Desk
Visit our "Make an Appointment" page to schedule a research consultation with a reference librarian.

You can also get in touch with the Research Center Desk during our operating hours at (303) 871-2905.