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Management 3280; MBA 4620; Business Plan


Citation Builders

Citing First Research

First Research industry profiles do not have authors/bylines. Here's how you could cite it:


Fast-food & quick-service restaurants (2021, July 12). Retrieved July 30, 2021 from 

      First Research.

In-text cite:

There is intense competition in the quick service industry, providing consumers a wide variety of quality food service options ("Fast-Food," 2021).


Citing IBISWorld

To cite the reports from IBISWorld, it will probably be easier if you download the pdf version and use it to create your reference.


Le, T. (2020, September). Pizza restaurants. Retrieved July 30, 2021, from IBISWorld.

In-text cite:

This industry is expected to have moderate growth in the next five years (Le, 2020).

Citing Mergent Intellect

These are examples of how you could cite information retrieved from Mergent Intellect.

  • If you prefer to use one general citation for everything you obtained from this source, from competitors, to industry reports, to financials, you might want to use the following as your example, with McDonald's as the author:

Reference example:

McDonald's Corporation. Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved July 30, 2021, from Mergent Intellect.

In-text citation:

Two of McDonald's burger competitors include Wendy's and Jack in the Box (McDonald's, n.d.).

If you want to differentiate the information you found in the different sections of Mergent, you could do so by using the letters a-z after the date. For instance, if you want to do this for the 10-K and industry report retrieved for McDonald's, the following examples are provided:

Reference example for 10-K retrieved from Mergent Intellect (it would probably be easier to cite if you obtained it from the company website):

McDonald's Corporation. Inc. (n.d.a). Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended  December 31, 2020. Retrieved July 30, 2021, from

      Mergent Intellect

In-text cite (you need to include the page number if you are providing an exact quotation):

"In 2020, global comparable sales decreased 7.7% primarily as a result of COVID-19. Comparable guest counts were negative across all segments for the year" (McDonald's, n.d.a, p. 8).


Reference example for a First Research industry profile retrieved from Mergent Intellect, although it would probably be better to cite it directly from the First Research database as you would be able to use an actual date instead of n.d.:


McDonald's Corporation. (n.d.b). Fast-food & quick-service restaurants, July 12, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021 from 

      Mergent Intellect

In-text cite:

There is intense competition in the quick service industry, providing consumers a wide variety of quality food service options (McDonald's, n.d.b).

Citing Mintel

Mintel has industry analysts who write their reports, so use them as your authors.


Ruiz, J. (2021). Marketing to Hispanic moms - US. Mintel.

In-text cite. 

Hispanic moms are attracted to back-to-school sales (Ruiz, 2021).

Citing Reference Solutions

The following example reflects a list of pet shop companies in Denver, CO retrieved from Reference Solutions. Because this list will change over time, the following is used: Retrieved month, day, year, from


Pet shops in Denver, CO. (n.d). Retrieved July 30, 2021, from Reference Solutions

In text cite:

There are 48 pet shops in Denver, CO ("Pet Shops," n.d.).

  • If you wanted to use an individual company from the results, then you could use the following reference entry:


Camp Bow Wow. (n.d.). Retrieved July 30, 2021, from Reference Solutions.

In-text cite:

Camp Bow Wow's (n.d.) parent company is Mars, Inc.