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Journal articles, journals, researchers, and institutions can all be evaluated based on the number of published works, both in sheer numbers as well as quality of the published work. Naturally these all interconnect and have an impact upon one another.
The value of journal articles, books and other similar works can be measured by the number of times there are cited within other published works. In addition to the traditional bibliographic measurements (bibliometrics) works can also be measured by alternative metrics (altmetrics) such as: number of shares, tweets, likes, blogged about, etc.
Academic journal significance is often measured by the number of times the articles published within the journal are cited as well as where those articles are published.
Of course researchers also have an impact upon bibliometric information that is based on their successes. The more works a researcher publishes as well as how many times their works are cited indicates a higher ranking. Institutions have reputations to maintain including the quality of the research coming from their institutions, which is measured by the collective impact of the researchers in comparison to other institutions.
Citation Tracking & Maps
It can take years for articles, books, etc. to get published, keep that in mind when tracking citations. Unfortunately, it doesn't all happen at once. As you can see with the visualization below, you can create maps of citations going forward and back in time: citation maps. This is just a small start to what could become large citation map.
Bibliometrics has moved well beyond the mere tracking of bibliographic citations. The web enables new ways to measure scholarly productivity and impact, making available tools and data that can reveal patterns of intellectual activity and impact that were previously invisible: mentions, acknowledgments, endorsements, downloads, recommendations, blog posts, tweets. This book describes recent theoretical and practical advances in metrics-based research, examining a variety of alternative metrics -- or "altmetrics" -- while also considering the ethical and cultural consequences of relying on metrics to assess the quality of scholarship.
Can scientific methods be directed toward science itself? How did scientists, scientific documents, and their bibliographic links come to be regarded as mathematical variables in abstract models of scientific communication? What is the role of quantitative analyses of scientific and technical documentation in current policy and management? Bibliometrics and Citation Analysis: From the Science Citation Index to Cybermetrics answers these questions through a comprehensive overview of theories, techniques, concepts, and applications in the interdisciplinary and steadily growing field of bibliometrics.
The Publish or Perish book is a companion to the Publish or Perish software program, which retrieves and analyzes academic citations. It illustrates its many and variable uses and shows you how to get the best out of the program. Citations are not only a reflection of the impact that a particular piece of academic work has generated. Citations can also be used to tell stories about academics, journals and fields of research. This book is meant to help you create effective stories, but also to teach you how to be a responsible user of research metrics.
But Why Bibliometrics?
Bibliometrics effects a consider amount of people and processes. Bibliometrics affects people and researchers because the number of times individuals are cited can determine tenure and research funding. Furthermore, those journals that have a high impact factor are more popular and will definitely be found in journal collections over other journals that do not have as high of an impact factor. These journals are more popular and tend to have more status within their fields, justified or no.
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