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Alexander III and the Policy of "Russification," 1883-1886.
The assassination of Alexander II, the reformer Czar, brought to the throne his son Alexander III. Alexander III condemned the influence of Western culture, ideas, and liberalist reforms supported by his father. He believed that Russia had lost its domineering role in Eastern Europe due to Western liberalism and the only way for Russia to regain its position was through a process he instituted called "Russificiation."
Cold War: Voices of Confrontation and Conciliation.
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World-primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies-and the powers of the Western world, primarily the U.S. and its NATO allies.
Commercial and Trade Relations Between Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and the U.S., 1910-1963.
The documents found in this file—predominantly instructions to and dispatches from diplomatic and consular officials—provide valuable information on economic relations between Russia/the Soviet Union and the United States, from the time of the last czar through the later years of Stalin. Also provided are general insights on the period 1918-1933, when the only relations maintained between the United States and the Soviet Union were commercial.
Ambassador Graham Martin and the Saigon Embassy's Back Channel Communication Files, 1963-1975.
The Saigon Embassy Files Kept by Ambassador Graham Martin is one of many sub-collections that comprise the National Security Adviser Files at the Ford Presidential Library.
Indochina, France, and the Viet Minh War, 1945-1954: Records of the U.S. State Department, Part 1: 1945-1949.
Following the surrender of the Japanese in September 1945, France pushed for the nullification of the 1938 Franco-Siamese Treaty and attempted to reassert itself in the region, but came into conflict with the Viet Minh, a coalition of Communist and Vietnamese nationalists under French-educated dissident Ho Chi Minh. During World War II, the United States had supported the Viet Minh in resistance against the Japanese; the group had been in control of the countryside since the French gave way in March 1945.
Intelligence Reports from the National Security Council's Vietnam Information Group, 1967-1975.
The Vietnam Information Group consisted of NSC staff members responsible for monitoring cable traffic from other agencies reporting on events in South and North Vietnam. The collection consists primarily of State Department cables and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) intelligence information cables. In addition, this collection includes a variety of reports, memoranda, and clippings.
U.S. Civilian Advisory Effort in Vietnam: U.S. Operations Mission, 1950-1954.
The collapse of the Chinese Nationalist government in 1949 sharpened American apprehensions over communist expansion in the Far East, and hastened U.S. measures to counter the threat posed by Mao's China. The U.S. sought to create and employ policy instruments similar to those it was bringing into play against the Soviets in Europe: collective security organizations, economic aid, and military assistance.
U.S. Military Advisory Effort in Vietnam: Military Assistance Advisory Group, Vietnam, 1950-1964
In September 1950, President Harry Truman sent a Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) to Vietnam to assist the French in the First Indochina war. The President claimed they were not sent as combat troops, but to supervise the use of $10 million worth of U.S. military equipment to support the French in their effort to fight the Viet Minh forces. By 1953, aid increased dramatically to $350 million to replace old military equipment owned by the French.