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Marketing 2800/2010 Research Guide: Citing for In-Class Assignment

This guide has been created for the Marketing 2800 class.


Format Used

This section provides examples of how to cite information obtained from subscription-based databases.  The examples are a hybrid based on the APA Publication Manual 6th ed., and the electronic example used in the APA Publication Manual, 5th ed.

Depending on the information available, one of the following formats used is:  

Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved from Name of database


Title of entry. (Year, Month, day). In Title of reference work (Online edition). Retrieved from Name of database

Use a URL in place of "name of database" if that is what your instructor prefers.

The general format for in text-citations is:

(Last name of author, year)

If you are including a direct quote, you need to include the page number. If a document doesn't have a page number you can use the paragraph number or an abbreviated heading name (along with the paragraph #) under which it falls.

In-text example for a direct quote: (Smith, 2018, p. 50)

In-text cite example if pages are not included: (Smith, 2018, para. 3)

Mergent Intellect

These are some examples on how you can cite information retrieved from Mergent Intellect. In general, you could cite everything retrieved from this database as follows:

Verizon Communications Inc. (2018). Retrieved from Mergent Intellect database

If your instructor wants a URL, you can cite as follows:

Verizon Communications Inc. (2018). Retrieved from

In-text cite:

One of Verizon's competitor's is AT&T (Verizon, 2018).

You can also use lower case letters to differentiate the different parts of the database from which you obtain the information. For instance, 2018a for information retrieved from the 10-K. 2018b for data from the Competitors List, and 2018c for information from the Industry tab. Here are some examples:

If you are using information from a company's 10-K retrieved from Mergent Intellect, you can cite as follows:

Verizon Communications Inc. (2018a). Form 10-KRetrieved from Mergent Intellect database 

In-text cite (you need to include the page number if you are quoting exactly from a document with page numbers):

Verizon offers "wireless services on a postpaid and prepaid basis" (Verizon, 2018a, p. 4).

You can use the following format to cite a First Research industry profile from Mergent Intellect: 

Verizon Communications Inc. (2018c). Telecommunications resellers. Retrieved from Mergent Intellect database

In-text cite:

The market for second-hand smartphones will probably diminish sales for new smartphones (Verizon, 2018c).

Mintel reports

Mintel has industry analysts who write their reports, so use them as your authors.

Poelking, J. (2017 March). Outdoor enthusiasts - US. Retrieved from Mintel database

If your instructor wants the URL, then cite as follows: 

Poelking, J. (2017 March). Outdoor enthusiasts - US. Retrieved from

In-text cite (for an exact quote from the report):

"Social media is particularly popular among Millennial outdoor enthusiasts" (Poelking, 2017, Younger generations engage online, para. 2).



WARC. (2016). Global media cost comparison, cost per thousand. [Data set]. Generated March 7, 2019 (12:33 PM). Retrieved from WARC database

In-text citation: It cost $10,500 to reach men and $6,900 to reach women through magazine advertising in 2016 (WARC, 2016).


Intel Corporation. (2019). Brand media spend summary (Annual). Retrieved from Winmo database

In-text citation: Intel’s media spending for the first quarter in 2019 is $$207,641 (Intel, 2019).


eMarketer (2018). Facebook ad revenues worldwide, 2016-2020 (billions and % change). Retrieved from eMarketer database 

In-text citation: Facebook ad revenues are expected to increase to $81.45 billion in 2020 (eMarketer, 2018).