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GEOG 1218 - Our Dynamic Earth: Evaluating Sources with CRAAP



  • Currency: timeliness to event and your topic
    • When was it published?
    • Is the information current?
    • Is current information important to this topic?
  • Relevance: importance of the information
    • Does it relate to your topic?
    • Who is the intended audience?
  • Authority: why should I trust this author?
    • Who is the author/publisher?
    • What are his/her/their credentials?
  • Accuracy: is it reliable, true, correct?
    • Has it been reviewed/refereed before being published?
    • Is it supported by evidence or facts?
    • Does it represent a valid scientific study?
  • Purpose: the reason the information exists
    • Is it fact, opinion, or propaganda?
    • Are there biases?

Evaluation Resources

Resources for Evaluating Sources

CRAAP Scoring Rubric


Verify Peer-Reviewed Sources

Look up a journal title (not an individual article title) in Ulrichsweb with the link below to verify whether the journal is peer-reviewed.


Look for this referee jersey icon in the Ulrich search results to confirm that a journal is refereed/peer-reviewed. Refereed journals use a review process in which articles are reviewed by experts and respected researches to verify the validity and value of the article to the field.