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MBA Research Guide

APA Formatting

This section provides examples of how to cite information obtained from subscription-based databases and that are not articles in magazines, newspapers, trade journals, or scholarly journals. The APA Publication Manual, 7th ed. says that the database should included in the reference, and in italics, if a reader needs to retrieve the work cited in that specific source (p. 296), or when the work is proprietary to that database (p. 297). That is the case in the examples provided in this section. Consequently, the database names are included in the examples used in this portion of the guide.

For a database that requires login, use the database URL or that of the login page. 

In addition, when you know the information cited won't be available in the future in a particular database, the retrieval date of the report should be included:

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of work. Retrieved Month day, year, from Name of database. URL.

Or if there is no author:

Title of work. (Date). Retrieved Month day, year, from Name of database. URL.

The general formats for in text-citations are:

Parenthetical citation: (Last name of author, year)

Narrative citation: Last name of author (year)

If you are including a direct quote, you need to include the page number. If a document doesn't have a page number you can use the paragraph number or an abbreviated heading name (along with the paragraph #) under which it falls.

In-text example for a direct quote: (Smith, 2018, p. 50)

In-text cite example if pages are not included: (Smith, 2018, para. 3)