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APA Style Guide for Business: Databases

Table of Contents

Format Used

This section provides examples of how to cite information obtained from subscription-based databases.  The examples are a hybrid based on the APA Publication Manual 6th ed., and the electronic example used in the APA Publication Manual, 5th ed.

Depending on the information available, one of the following formats is used:  

Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved from Name of database

Or if there is not author:

Title of entry. (Year, Month, day). In Title of reference work (Online edition). Retrieved from Name of database

For articles from newspapers, magazines, and other sources that do not include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), the following format is used:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. Retrieved from Name of database

NOTE: xx refers to the volume and pp refers to the actual page numbers.

The general format for in text-citations is:

(Last name of author, year)

If you are including a direct quote, you need to include the page number. If a document doesn't have a page number you can use the paragraph number or an abbreviated heading name (along with the paragraph #) under which it falls.

In-text example for a direct quote: (Smith, 2018, p. 50)

In-text cite example if pages are not included: (Smith, 2018, para. 3)

Advertising Redbook

Intel Corporation. (2017). Annual measured U.S. media spend. Retrieved from Redbooks academic edition database.

In-text citation: Intel’s advertising spending for network television was $37,218,500 in 2017 (Intel, 2017).

Bizminer

This entry is based on the following format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from name of database

Bizminer. (2014 December). Industry financial report. All US [722515.024] Bagel shop. Retrieved from Bizminer database

 In-text cite:

 According to Bizminer (2014), the current ratio for the bagel shop industry was 1.58 in 2009.

eMarketer

eMarketer (2018). Facebook ad revenues worldwide, 2016-2020 (billions and % change). Retrieved from eMarketer database 

In-text citation: Facebook ad revenues are expected to increase to $81.45 billion in 2020 (eMarketer, 2018).

First Research

First Research industry profiles do not have authors/bylines. Here's how you could cite it:

Accounting services. (2017 November 27). Retrieved from First Research database

In text cite for a direct quotation:

"Companies in this industry provide services such as auditing, bookkeeping, payroll processing, and tax return preparation" (Accounting services, 2017, Industry overview, para. 1).

 

Gale Virtual Reference Library

The general format for citing reference works using the APA 6th ed. (p. 202) is as follows:

Title of entry. (Year). In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Example: 

NAICS 31191M - Snack food manufacturing. (2015). In A. J. Darnay & J. P. Simkin (Eds.), Manufacturing & distribution USA: Industry analyses, statistics and leading companies.Online edition (8th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 120-124). MI: Gale. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library database

In Text cite:

Frito-Lay North America is the leading manufacturer in the snack food industry, with $16,629 million in sales  (NAICS 31191M, 2015). 

IBISWorld

To cite the reports from IBISWorld, it will probably be easier if you download the pdf version and use it to create your reference.

Alvarez, A. (2017, October). Fast food restaurants in the US. Retrieved from IBISWorld database

In-text cite:

"Industry growth is expected to slow over the next five years as the domestic economy continues to improve" (Alvarez, 2017, p. 5).

Mergent Intellect

These are three examples on how you can cite information retrieved from Mergent Intellect.

Verizon Communications Inc. (2018a). Retrieved from Mergent Intellect database

("a" is used after the year to differentiate it from other Verizon entries)

If your instructor wants a URL, you can cite as follows:

Verizon Communications Inc. (2018a). Retrieved from http://du.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://www.mergentintellect.com

In-text cite:

One of Verizon's competitor's is AT&T (Verizon, 2018a).

If you are using information from a company's 10-K retrieved from Mergent Intellect, you can cite as follows:

Verizon Communications Inc. (2018b). Form 10-KRetrieved from Mergent Intellect database 

In-text cite (you need to include the page number if you are quoting exactly from the document):

Verizon offers "wireless services on a postpaid and prepaid basis" (Verizon, 2018b, p. 4).

You can use the following format to cite a First Research industry profile from Mergent Intellect: 

Verizon Communications Inc. (2018c). Telecommunications resellers. Retrieved from Mergent Intellect database

In-text cite:

The market for second-hand smartphones will probably diminish sales for new smartphones (Verizon, 2018c).

Mintel

Mintel has industry analysts who write their reports, so use them as your authors.

Poelking, J. (2017 March). Outdoor enthusiasts - US. Retrieved from Mintel database

If your instructor wants the URL, then cite as follows: 

Poelking, J. (2017 March). Outdoor enthusiasts - US. Retrieved from http://du.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://academic.mintel.com

In-text cite. Since this is an exact quote from the report, the paragraph number was used because there are no page numbers:

"Social media is particularly popular among Millennial outdoor enthusiasts" (Poelking, 2017, Younger generations engage online, para. 2).

ReferenceUSA

The following example reflects a list of companies I retrieved from ReferenceUSA when I searched for pet shops in Denver, CO. 

ReferenceUSA. (2017). Pet shops in Denver, CO. [Data set]. Generated November 22, 2017 (10:43 AM). Retrieved from ReferenceUSA database

In text cite:

There were 57 pet shops in Denver, CO (ReferenceUSA, 2017).

If I wanted to use an individual company from the results, then I might use the following reference entry:

Bentleys Pet Stuff. (2017, November 22). Retrieved from ReferenceUSA database

S&P Global NetAdvantage

INDUSTRY SURVEY EXAMPLE:

Zino, A. (2017, June). Industry surveys: Telecommunications. Retrieved from S&P Global NetAdvantage database

In-text cite:

"The telecommunications industry has benefited from rising demand for smartphones and the explosion of data growth" (Zino, 2017, p. 7).

STOCK REPORT EXAMPLE:

CFRA. (2017, November 18). Verizon Communications, Inc. Stock report. Retrieved from S&P Global NetAdvantage database

In-text cite:

"Competitive threats from cable and satellite providers should weigh on pricing and subscriber growth" (CFRA, 2017, p. 4). 

WARC

WARC. (2016). Global media cost comparison, cost per thousand. [Data set]. Generated March 7, 2019 (12:33 PM) Retrieved from WARC database

In-text citation: It cost $10,500 to reach men and $6,900 to reach women through magazine advertising in 2016 (WARC, 2016).

Reference Librarian

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Esther Gil
Subjects: Accounting, Business Information & Analytics, Economics, Finance, Hospitality Management, Management, Marketing, Real Estate & Construction Management
Contact:
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